Treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities: causes, symptoms, prevention of the disease

the doctor points out varicose veins of the extremities

Thanks to modern technologies and the development of pharmacological products, today there are many methods of treating varicose veins of the lower extremities. But for effective therapy, it is important to know the causes of the pathology and correctly identify the disease, so that treatment is timely and as effective as possible.

Girl examines varicose veins on the leg

What are varicose veins?

Varicose veins are a common pathology in our time. This disease has been known since Hippocrates. Varicose veins are observed in around every fourth inhabitant of our planet today.

Judging by the statistics of visits to medical institutions, this pathology was found in every fifth man and in 28% of the lighter sex. In theory, around half of the total population will have some symptoms of this disease.

Varicose veins are a pathology that involves enlargement of the veins as a result of impaired blood flow and valve insufficiency. Both women and men, regardless of age, are exposed to this disease.

A feature of the disease can be the fact that it develops in comfortable living conditions. In the territory of Asia, a lower number of cases were uncovered during the experiments due to constant physical exertion and physical activity.

Some people consider this disease to be a simple cosmetic skin defect that appears as a bluish web on the legs, thighs, and feet. However, in fact, it is a serious disease that requires careful diagnosis and complex therapy, and in no case does not tolerate self-medication. Why do varicose veins of the lower extremities appear?

Common causes

There are a number of specific causes that affect the onset of pathology. Theoretically, they can be divided into three groups:

  • impaired blood clotting;
  • damage to the walls of the vessels;
  • stagnant processes in the surrounding tissue.

To pinpoint the cause, it is necessary to consult a doctor, who will have to perform a number of diagnostic procedures. The most common reasons for the formation of a network of veins in the legs are:

  1. Obesity.Due to improper nutrition and frequent consumption of junk food, obesity develops, which increases the risk of developing pathologies. The higher the level of obesity, the greater the risk of valve dysfunction.
  2. Hereditary disposition.So far, they have not been able to prove that pathologies can be transmitted at the genetic level. But often the progression of pathology is observed in relatives of different generations.
  3. Sedentary lifestyle and sedentary lifestyle. . . Most people who do little exercise and who spend most of their working day sitting down (office workers, drivers) are at risk of developing and developing venous diseases.
  4. Wear tight underwear. . . Tight underwear or clothing squeezes shoes and veins, which has a negative effect on blood circulation. By the way, the regular wearing of heels is also due to this article.
  5. Pregnancy.The increased intra-abdominal pressure in the pelvic area and the destructive effect of progesterone lead to an impairment of the vessels.
  6. Violation of the circulatory processin the lower limbs.
Shoes with heels as a cause of varicose veins

This is just a small list of the main reasons. In fact, there are many more of them, which may be why most people are prone to a network of veins forming in their legs.

Often, varicose veins appear due to diabetes mellitus and hormonal disorders.

If there are a lot of bad habits in your daily life, it is possible that they will lead to the development of the disease. By the way, experts also recommend rethinking your lifestyle.

Add more exercise as needed, walk, reduce sitting and standing, and change your daily diet by cutting out unhealthy and heavy foods for at least a while.

Varicose veins of the lower extremities - symptoms, treatment

There are two forms of pathology, which are divided according to etiological factors and main features - the primary form and the secondary. In the first case, the disease is caused by the weakness of the walls of the veins, which usually occurs under the influence of genetic or acquired factors.

The secondary form arises and develops due to a number of other reasons (obesity, wrong lifestyle, bad habits, other internal pathologies).

Treatment of varicose veins of the extremities with ointment

The main symptoms are external changes in the structure of the veins, which may look like cylindrical or sac-shaped enlargements above the surface of the skin. There are times when the veins do not bulge, but their color becomes noticeably darker, as a result of which a bluish network of blood vessels appears on the skin.

If you yourself notice such a symptom, it is recommended to consult a doctor as soon as possible, since the treatment process in the initial stages requires less time, effort and material resources. And the chance of taking remedial action increases significantly.

In the early stages of the disease, few people notice the symptoms; most people only experience what is known as "Tred Legs Syndrome". Which signs help to identify varicose veins at an early stage:

  • a constant feeling of heaviness;
  • burning sensation in the area of the foot;
  • Swelling and bloating;
  • rapid and frequent tiredness, especially in the morning.

With early therapy, chronic insufficiency, as well as the appearance of trophic ulcers, can develop. Sometimes this type of symptomatology can come and go.

In this case, perhaps we are talking about hormonal imbalances, restructuring most often seen in women during PMS and pregnancy.

Pregnancy as a cause of varicose veins on the legs

The symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency are more pronounced:

  • persistent or frequent cramps in the calves, especially at night;
  • the appearance of dark spots on the skin of the legs, dryness, abundant peeling of the skin;
  • the appearance of trophic ulcers, which are particularly painful.

If, against the background of the above symptoms, you develop swelling, severe reddening of the skin, as well as an increase in body temperature, consult a doctor immediately. In this case we may be talking about thrombophlebitis.


For diagnosis, you must first contact a therapist, who can refer you to a surgeon, vascular surgeon or phlebologist if necessary. In addition to the general examination and palpation, the following diagnostic procedures are usually prescribed:

  • a general blood test to check whether the blood is clotting;
  • Ultrasound of the lower extremities to identify the affected areas;
  • Rheovasography - a special study that will help determine the degree of pathology;
  • sometimes a surgical examination, for example, venography - intravenous administration of a contrast agent to determine the condition of the circulatory system.
Compression bandage for varicose veins

Sometimes doctors diagnose cosmetic, including reticular, varicose veins. This is the appearance of a small network of capillaries that is benign and not life threatening.

In severely neglected situations, computed tomography can be referred to, which reveals the presence of malignant tumors. In most cases, this diagnostic method is either not assigned at all or in the event of certain difficulties and suspected cases. It is used to select the operative, surgical treatment.

After a full examination, the specialist will prescribe treatment, which can be conservative, medicinal and, of course, surgical.

Conservative treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities

The easiest and safest method of therapy is a conservative method of therapy, which, as a rule, is prescribed in non-discharged cases, that is, in the first stage of the disease. It is also sometimes recommended to be used as a preventive measure for people who are prone to vascular networks.

Heaviness in the legs with varicose veins

These include eating right, giving up bad habits, and wearing compression underwear. Physical therapy exercises and lifestyle changes are particularly effective.

If you lead an overly active lifestyle, or, on the contrary, have to sit in front of the computer all the time, you need to adjust your daily routine. Therefore, it is imperative to walk for at least half an hour to avoid stagnant processes. When working from a sedentary position, it is recommended that you do exercises regularly, at least every two hours, and that you take breaks when you are physically active.

Regarding dietary nutrition, doctors recommend calculating the number of calories in order to avoid obesity.

In addition, it is recommended to exclude from the diet such foods and dishes:

  • hot spices and marinades;
  • salty and sour foods, dishes;
  • smoked meat;
  • fried food;
  • lots of sweet and starchy foods.

Instead, it is better to enrich the diet with fruits, vegetables high in ascorbic acid and fiber.

Varicose veins in the leg

Make sure to quit smoking as this habit is especially harmful to your health with varicose veins. If alcohol is only present in small quantities and it is only occasionally possible to somehow admit it, then smoking must be said goodbye altogether.

You cannot do without special compression underwear (stockings, tights, knee socks). This is an excellent tool for the prevention and reduction of symptoms of the pathology in the early stages. Usually such underwear is prescribed by a doctor, you can buy it in pharmacies or specialty medical equipment stores.

Drug therapy

Medications are not a panacea and are unlikely to completely cure varicose veins or stop their development. But as prevention and therapy for not very advanced situations, as well as to relieve the symptoms of varicose veins, doctors often prescribe medication.

Discomfort in the legs with varicose veins

First of all, venotonics are usually prescribed in the form of local preparations - gels and ointments. They are designed to protect the vein walls, stimulate venous drainage and improve microcirculation. Using venotonics will reduce pain, swelling, discomfort and a feeling of heaviness.

In combination with local drugs, tablets are usually prescribed. As additional drugs to therapy, drugs to improve blood microcirculation, anticoagulants, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that relieve pain and discomfort are usually prescribed.

Treatment of varicose veins with ointment


If conservative methods are ineffective, then surgical operation is prescribed, which has a medical name - phlebectomy.

Phlebectomy is the removal of veins through an operation in which blood clots are removed by cutting out the veins. It has certain indications and is carried out only if:

  • severe varicose veins;
  • the risk of thromboembolism;
  • trophic skin diseases;
  • acute thrombophlebitis;
  • severe swelling.

Phlebectomy also has a number of contraindications:

  • the patient is too old;
  • massive defeat;
  • Period of pregnancy;
  • vascular atherosclerosis;
  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • the presence of skin diseases at the site of the operation.

In addition to phlebectomy, there are other surgical methods used to combat the pathology. One of them is laser therapy. This is a fairly effective and expensive option that has its own advantages and disadvantages. In second place is scleroprosthetics - this is the introduction of a special substance into the vein itself, with the help of which, so to speak, the vessel walls are glued.

This is a fairly safe surgical method, but it is only suitable for dilating small vein branches. Its main advantage can be the lack of rough surgical sutures and rehabilitation time.

Heels are the cause of varicose veins


Preventive measures are especially necessary for people with hereditary predispositions, as well as for those who spend most of their time sitting. There are several recommendations that can be followed to prevent the development of the disease:

  • go for a walk every day;
  • When working standing, massage the feet and legs in the evening, when working sitting - do regular exercises;
  • refuse to constantly wear tight clothes and heels;
  • take a contrast shower, make compresses for leg fatigue with herbs;
  • After consulting a specialist, wear special orthopedic shoes and compression underwear.

Treating varicose veins of the lower extremities is a long process that requires effort, time, and patience. It is not always possible to face the problem without surgery. The only thing you might be able to do is not master the existing situation, seek medical advice in a timely manner, and undergo regular examinations. In this case, you will protect yourself from a dangerous disease and its complications.