Treatment of varicose veins

Varicose veins of the lower extremitiesOften referred to by patients as varicose veins *, is one of the most common diseases, the development of which is associated with dysfunction of the valves in the venous system, changes in the vein wall under the influence of various factors and insufficient blood outflow from the veins of the lower extremities. The disease develops over many years, the veins and capillaries gradually expand, which is why the characteristic symptoms appear.

statistics

Varicose veins are a predominantly female disease

Varicose veins are common worldwide:

  • in different countries up to 30% of middle-aged people suffer from it, and women are about 3 times more likely to get the disease than men, due to various reasons, such as hormonal background and others,
  • A characteristic of this chronic disease is a high tendency to recur (relapse) even after surgical treatment, for example, in 65% of patients after a vein operation over 2-5 years, a further development of varicose veins is determined.

Symptoms

Varicose vein disease develops gradually, the manifestations are diverse and depend on the stage:

  • in the initial stage, swelling of the legs at the end of the working day, especially after a long static position (sitting or standing) for many hours with uncomfortable high-heeled shoes;
  • in the future the swelling increases, occurs during the day, does not go away spontaneously;
  • then vascular "asterisks" appear on the skin of the thighs and legs, these changes are mistakenly perceived by many patients as a cosmetic defect, but actually indicate an impaired venous outflow;
  • Veins visible through the skin, which later "protrude" above the skin surface, are varicose veins with a thin and inelastic vascular wall;
  • then there are skin changes in areas with varicose veins - pigmentation, eczema and others;
  • then trophic ulcers form, which are difficult to treat.

With varicose veins, patients notice pain and heaviness in the legs, a "feeling of fullness" and pulsation in the legs, muscle cramps and restless legs syndrome are also observed.

causes

The cause of the disease is congenital dysplasia (impaired development and structure of connective tissue), which leads to weakness of the venous wall and the venous valves. Predisposing factors - pregnancy, heavy physical labor or work while standing.

treatment

Elastic bandage for varicose veins to reduce edema and permeability of the affected vein wall

Treatment for varicose veins is complex. First of all, it involves a change in the motor regime. It is necessary to refrain from wearing heels, long walks and strenuous physical activity.

For varicose veins, an individual combination of different methods is used - conservative and surgical. The following correction techniques are used:

  • Medicines (phleboprotectors or venotonics), mainly plant-based (flavonoids, saponins and other biologically active substances from plants), are prescribed at different stages of the disease to improve the tone of the veins and lymph vessels, to maintain anesthesia, decongestant effect. They are not used as monotherapy, i. H. as the only drug for treatment, they are always combined with other treatments or preventive measures;
  • Compression therapy is used alone or as an adequate complement to sclerotherapy, surgery;
  • Compression with elastic and inelastic medical devices (bandages, bandages) improves drainage, reduces edema and permeability of the affected vein wall;
  • Sclerotherapy - a method of treatment that involves injecting special drugs into the lumen of a vein, which causes a specific blood clot to form and stop the flow of blood in the vein (the vein is sclerosed);
  • surgical treatment with different techniques - classical phlebectomy operations as well as laser and radio frequency techniques are used.

Physiotherapy is also often used at different stages of varicose veins, in combination with other methods or independently. The most effective physiotherapeutic procedures have the maximum anti-edema and drainage effects.

Magnetic Therapy(in varicose veins the greatest efficiency of a running pulsed magnetic field is proven) has a complex effect: first of all, the blood flow is normalized in a certain area by reducing the viscosity and improving the blood circulation, which reduces the risk of blood clots; Lymph flow improves; the metabolism in the tissue is normalized as the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue increases; Regeneration processes are started. It is important that magnetic therapy also has an analgesic effect - by reducing the sensitivity of nerve fibers and removing tissue edema, which has a positive effect on the patient's condition from the first few sessions.

Pressotherapy- the method of compressive action on the lower extremities with special cuffs connected to the compressor. In this case there is an ascending compression of the tissue in the upward direction from the toes. The method has a pronounced therapeutic effect, especially in combination with magnetic field therapy.

Healthy legs without varicose veins

Electrical stimulationthe calf muscles aims to improve the work of the so-called venous pump (the return of venous blood to the heart occurs due to the pumping action of the calf muscles, in the thickness of which the venous network is located). With increased muscle contractions, the venous blood flow from the lower extremities improves.
It should be noted that magnetic therapy procedures can also be used at home.

Success in treating varicose veins and relieving symptoms is more likely to be achieved through the combined use of various techniques that should be selected by the attending physician (vascular surgeon).

prophylaxis

Anyone concerned about the symptoms of varicose veins can do a lot themselves to stay healthy! Some patients trust only surgical treatments and do not pay enough attention to preventive measures to prevent the further development of varicose veins - and this is wrong.

Timely changes in lifestyle, such as a comfortable work environment, regular exercise therapy, can significantly improve the condition (especially in the early stages of the disease) along with the use of preventive drugs and weight loss.

* Varicose veins are saphenous veins with a diameter of more than 3 mm when standing.