Varicose veins (varicose veins)

Varicose veins in the legs

Varicose veins, or more precisely varicose veins, is a disease that only affects the venous system. It is viewed by many as a selective foot disease.

However, varicose veins are not only found on the lower extremities, but also in the small pelvis. In addition, it manifests as hemorrhoids, varicocele (enlarged testicular veins), or disguises itself as various gynecological complaints. Varicose veins of the esophagus with cirrhosis of the liver cause great problems for patients.



Causes of Varicose Veins

The function of the venous system is to ensure the blood supply after the tissue has processed useful substances to the heart so that the heart can send it to oxygen to the lungs. The outflow is constant. The negative pressure created by the diaphragm and some parts of the heart helps the blood vessels. Since a person spends most of their time in an upright position, the veins must overcome gravity to prevent blood stagnation. For this they have a muscular frame and valves on the inner shell.

Varicose veins are the result of venous insufficiency. Violation of the structure of the wall leads to loss of elasticity and decreased tone. Slack valves cannot hold back blood; excessive deposition (accumulation) occurs in distant parts of the body.

By slowing the speed of blood flow, favorable conditions are created in them for platelets to stick together and blood clots to form. The situation becomes dangerous as a blood clot can break off at any time and enter an important blood vessel and cause tissue necrosis.

Another complication is the development of an infection on the weakened vein wall (phlebitis). This leads to even more negative symptoms.

Signs of varicose veins are found in every fifth woman and every tenth man.

The causes of the disease are conventionally divided into primary and secondary varicose veins.

  • The primary lesion is associated with abnormalities in the structure of the venous wall.
  • In the secondary, changes occur in the valve apparatus.

This occurs when:

  • hereditary predisposition associated with a lack of collagen in the body, which provides the elasticity of the wall or components for its synthesis;
  • endocrine disorders due to prolonged use of hormonal drugs (birth control pills, steroid drugs);
  • heavy physical exertion;
  • forced long standing working position;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Smoke;
  • Leg injuries.

Taking into account the listed factors that contribute to the disease, it is possible to determine the risk group to which future patients with varicose veins belong, regardless of age:

  • Professions that require long standing up (salespeople, teachers, hairdressers);
  • motionless posture (transport driver, sitting at the computer) - stagnation occurs in the legs and in the small pelvis;
  • the habit of wearing high heels - redistributes body weight and increases the load on blood vessels;
  • Athletes - weight lifting, bodybuilding, wrestling, tennis cause great tension in the legs;
  • People who wear tight underwear, stockings with elastic bands, a belt, a belt - any constriction helps to delay the outflow of blood;
  • the habit of sitting "cross-legged" for a long time blocks the superficial veins of the lower leg and contributes to stagnation;
  • Passion for alcoholic beverages and coffee - causes the body to dry out or the blood thickens and slows the flow through the vessels.

Symptoms of the disease

With varicose veins, the "most adverse" conditions for blood flow are created in the peripheral tissues. Therefore, varicose veins of the legs are the most common manifestation of the disease.

  • Leg pain and tiredness occur towards the end of the work day.
  • Burning feeling.
  • Cramps while walking or at night.
  • Swelling of the feet in the evening, patients notice the tightness of their usual shoes.
  • The appearance of "vascular spiders" on the legs.
  • Darkening and dryness of the skin of the feet and legs.
  • Trophic ulcers on the feet.
Visible symptoms of varicose veins on the legs

The signs listed above will gradually develop over the years.

The appearance of "visible" symptoms indicates a progressive vascular lesion.

treatment

Therapy for varicose veins cannot relieve the patient of the disease, but it helps to avoid serious complications and slow down the further development of the disease.

What habits do you need to get rid of?

When treating varicose veins, ask yourself, "What should you change in your normal life? " The following tips will help you:

  • stop visiting the bathhouse, steam room, hot baths are contraindicated for you;
  • Limit the use of liquor and beer;
  • gradually quitting smoking;
  • control your posture while sitting, do not cross your legs;
  • stop pulling with belts, belts and special underwear;
  • Getting rid of excess weight;
  • do not wear tight shoes and high heels;
  • Make a habit of rinsing your feet with cold water after you shower, at night while you rest at home, and put your feet on a pillow.

Motor mode

Taking into account the risk factors, it is necessary for people in "dangerous" professions to take breaks from a foot massage: Drivers get out of the car to walk, hairdressers sit on a chair and massage their legs from bottom to top with light strokes.

You need to walk as much as possible, the work of the leg muscles promotes blood flow.

Your morning workout should include exercises while lying on your back, lifting your legs, pulling your toes towards you, and flexing your arches.

Sports recommend swimming and cycling.

diet

The choice of products for varicose veins is fraught with the need to strengthen the walls of blood vessels and limit sharp and salty foods that retain fluid.

You should limit fatty meat in any form, hot spices, smoked meat, butter, cheese, mayonnaise, sweets, carbonated drinks.

Include vegetables and fruits, grains, dairy products, green or herbal tea, vegetable oil, onions, and garlic in your daily diet.

Conservative means

To aid venous blood flow, it is recommended that the legs be bandaged from the toes to the middle of the thigh. It is much more comfortable to wear special compression stockings. They are sold in the pharmacy chain and are sized. The doctor will help you choose the socks.

All the advertised drugs, ointments work only in the initial stages of the disease, when a person notices increased fatigue in the legs. The doctor will advise you on the most modern and effective drugs. In the "visual" phase, their use is practically useless.

Specialist phlebologists deal with the treatment of varicose veins. They believe that around 95% of cases can be compensated with less traumatic methods, only 5% require surgical intervention.

Low-trauma methods for treating varicose veins

These procedures do not require an incision or involve a small incision. They are carried out on an outpatient basis and are painless. The patient does not experience any restrictions, he can go about his usual work.

Laser ablation

Under local anesthesia, a light guide is carefully inserted into the area of the varicose vein, while a laser with a circular effect is switched on while moving backwards. The process takes up to two hours. The laser beam burns the inner shell with further hardening. It is used to treat veins of any diameter.

Laser ablation for varicose veins

Sclerotherapy

The patient is injected into the affected vessel with a substance that causes the walls to collapse, and then sclerosis. Currently, clinics use foam drugs that are safe for the body. It is used with a diameter of no more than one cm. After the procedure, it is recommended to walk for an hour. You will need to wear compression stockings for another month.

Microflebectomy

After local anesthesia, a small incision is made (no more than a few mm), the diseased vein is grasped with a special hook, brought out and removed. Vessels of any size can be removed in this way. A few days after the procedure, bruises can be seen at the injection site. A small scar forms. It is necessary to wear compression stockings for about 10 days.

Radio frequency ablation

The method is similar to the laser method, but here a catheter with a microwave radio frequency effect is inserted into the area of the varicose veins. It is believed to not cause burns and is safe for surrounding tissues. After half an hour of exposure, the lumen of the vessel "seals". After a week you can do sports.

surgery

An operation to remove an enlarged vein or an entire bundle is called a phlebectomy. Its implementation requires hospitalization. General anesthesia is used. Two skin incisions are made (in the groin and below the knee). The surface branches are tied. The entire vein is removed and cut out. After the operation, the patient should be observed in the hospital for about a week. The condition of the postoperative sutures is monitored, drugs are prescribed that slow blood clotting to prevent thrombus formation. The sutures are removed after 7 to 10 days.

Contraindications for phlebectomy:

  • simultaneous damage to superficial and deep veins;
  • Age over 75;
  • various skin diseases at the site of the operation;
  • oncological diseases;
  • Pregnancy;
  • Atherosclerosis of the vessels of the lower extremities;
  • severe form of diabetes mellitus.

Traditional methods of treatment

Traditional methods are best used in combination with medication in the early stages of the disease.

Hirudotherapy (with leeches) is a tried and tested method. The enzyme released into the blood by leeches helps reduce inflammation and tighten the walls of blood vessels.

It is recommended to use herbal decoctions and tinctures in the form of compresses on the site of varicose veins. To do this, use: chamomile flowers, marigold, St. John's wort, yarrow, wormwood leaves, horse chestnut, burdock. It is recommended to use walnuts and garlic inside.

The choice of treatment for varicose veins rests with an experienced surgeon. Timely access to a doctor and the implementation of recommendations will prevent the serious consequences of the disease.